Erik Runkle

Professor

Erik Runkle

Ph.D.

1066 Bogue St, Room A240-C
East Lansing, MI 48824

Phone: (517) 353-0350

Area of Expertise: Lighting applications for greenhouses and controlled environments; light-emitting diodes; greenhouse energy conservation; floriculture crop growth and development.

Quick Links: Research   Extension   Publications

Joined Department

January, 2001

Appointment

  • 50% Extension
  • 50% Research

Education

  • B.S. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Ornamental Horticulture, 1993
  • M.S. Michigan State University, Horticulture, 1996
  • Ph.D. Michigan State University, Horticulture, 2000

General Information

My research group focuses on the environmental physiology of ornamental plants, with an emphasis on commercial floriculture and other specialty herbaceous crops.  In particular, we are investigating how the properties of light (quantity, quality, and duration) and temperature influence growth and development of annual bedding plants, herbaceous perennials, and potted flowering plants.  Three underlying objectives of this research are: 1) to improve the production efficiency and/or quality of crops currently grown; 2) to minimize production inputs – with an emphasis on greenhouse energy consumption; and 3) to introduce “new” greenhouse crops to the industry to replace or supplement the production of other, less profitable crops.  See below for more information on my research and extension/outreach activities.

I collaborate with faculty at Clemson Univ., North Carolina State Univ., Univ. of Florida, Univ. of Minnesota, and Texas A&M Univ. and researchers at the USDA-ARS in Toledo, Ohio.  Together, we have formed the Floriculture Research Alliance, a partnership with industry stakeholders and the USDA-ARS in which we develop science-based solutions to floriculture sustainability issues.

From 2010-2015, I collaborated with colleagues at Purdue University, University of Arizona, Rutgers University, and Orbitec in developing light-emitting diode (LED) technologies and practicees for sustainable specialty-crop production.  For more information on this USDA-supported project, visit our LED project website.

Honors

Kenneth Post Award for Graduate Research in Floriculture (paper) 2014
AmericanHort Alex Laurie Award (most outstanding research paper) 2014
Kenneth Post Award for Graduate Research in Floriculture (paper) 2013
ASHS Outstanding Extension Publication Award: Fact Sheet 2013
USDA Agriculture Research Service Technology Transfer Award 2012
OFA Alex Laurie Award (most outstanding research paper) 2012
Excellence in Technology Transfer, Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer 2012
Outstanding Extension Specialist, Michigan Association of Extension Agents 2011
Research Fellow, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Kyoto University 2009
ASHS Outstanding Extension Publication Award: Website 2008
ASHS Outstanding Extension Publication Award: Newsletter 2008
Outstanding Extension Specialist, Michigan Extension Specialist and State Staff Assoc. 2008
Kenneth Post Award for Graduate Research in Floriculture (paper) 2006
OFA Alex Laurie Award (most outstanding research paper) 2006
American Society for Agricultural and Biological Engineers Blue Ribbon Award 2005

Floriculture Research

Lighting Applications in Floriculture and Specialty Crop Production

There are two types of lighting applications in the production of greenhouse crops: low-intensity lighting to create artificially long photoperiods, and high-intensity (supplemental) lighting to increase photosynthesis and thus plant growth.  Long days can promote flowering in some crops (long-day plants) or inhibit flowering in others (short-day plants).  We are evaluating plant responses to different photoperiodic lighting strategies, including different lighting intensities, durations, and spectral characteristics.  Recent grower articles on lighting can be found on the MSU Floriculture production website.

One project that ended in 2015 focused on using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to improve our understanding of how the red and far-red light ratio, as well as blue light, influences flowering of photoperiodic crops  This research was part of a USDA SCRI-funded project on enabling specialty-crop growers working in protected environments to successfully transition from traditional horticultural lighting sources to LED technologies.  For more information, visit our website Developing LED Lighting Technologies and Practices for Sustainable Specialty-Crop Production.

Another research project is in partnership with Osram Opto Semiconductors in which we are growing floriculture and vegetable seedlings in controlled environments under different light spectra created from LEDs.  Plant morphology and growth is dependant on the light spectrum, and identifying desirable ratios of red, blue, green, and/or white light can assist in the development of plant lighting, whether for sole source or supplemental applications.

I recently served as co-convener of the 8th International Symposium on Light in Horticulture, held under the auspices of the International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS). This symposium was held on the Michigan State University campus from May 22 to 26, 2016. For more information, visit the symposium website. The edited proceedings has been published and is volume 1134 of Acta Horticulturae.

Managing the Greenhouse Environment for Energy Conservation

With the recent rise in energy costs, some greenhouse growers have lowered their temperature setpoints to reduce fuel consumption for heating.  A lower greenhouse temperature delays crop timing, but surprisingly little information is available on how temperature controls the rate of development of many economically important bedding and perennial plants. We are performing studies to determine how temperature and daily light integral (DLI) regulate plant development during the plug or liner stage and the finish stage. Effects on plant quality, including flowering characteristics, are also being determined. These studies will enable us to predict how changing the greenhouse temperature influences crop timing.  For more information on greenhouse energy, please visit our Greenhouse Energy Cost Reduction Strategies website.

Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) on Greenhouse Crops

A constant challenge for many greenhouse growers is to properly manage plant height and architecture of their crops.  For the past several years, we have been quantifying how the timing, method, and rate of application of various PGRs influence growth and development of bedding plants, perennials, and potted plants.  Research continues on products that are currently on the market and on chemicals that are being considered for use with ornamentals.  Information on the use of plant growth retardants on greenhouse crops can be found on our Plant Growth Regulator Research website.

Floriculture Extension and Outreach

Michigan is the nation’s third largest producer of floriculture crops, with a reported wholesale value of $406 million in 2014.  Michigan is one of the nation’s largest producers of young plants, herbaceous perennials, and bedding plants.  In total, floriculture is the fourth largest agricultural commodity in the state behind milk, corn, and soybeans.

My overall outreach objective is to disseminate research-based information and provide educational opportunities for the greenhouse industry in Michigan.  I have developed the MSU Floriculture website, which provides production information and outreach activities targeted for the floriculture industry in Michigan and beyond.  Some of the floriculture outreach activities and sources of information for commercial greenhouse growers are briefly described below.

Greenhouse Production Information

This page contains links to MSU research-based information on plant production strategies, management of the environment, control of plant pathogens, the Greenhouse *A*Syst module, and other topics. Visit the MSU Greenhouse Crop Production Articles website, which contains many recent grower articles that have appeared in popular trade magazines and newsletters. Topics include bedding plant production, herbaceous perennial production, light, plant growth regulators, potted plant production, propagation of cuttings, and temperature. Information is also available on educational programs, including the Michigan Greenhouse Growers Expo and 8th International Symposium on Light in Horticulture .

Greenhouse Energy Cost Reduction Strategies

In collaboration with horticulturists, agricultural economists, and agricultural engineers, we have developed this website resource that contains production strategies and technologies that greenhouse growers can use to consume less energy and improve production efficiency.

MSU Extension News for Floriculture

This electronic newsletter is available free and contains short articles about emerging disease and insect pests, crop culture guidelines, height control strategies, educational events, and other greenhouse production topics.  Articles are primarily written by MSU faculty and MSU Extension educators and outreach specialist with floriculture expertise, but educators with related expertise also contribute.

Michigan Greenhouse Grower Expo

The Michigan Greenhouse Growers Expo is held jointly with the Great Lakes Fruit, Vegetable and Farm Market EXPO at the DeVos Place Convention Center in downtown Grand Rapids, Michigan.  The next Expo will be December 6-8, 2016. This Expo is planned by the MSU Floriculture Team in coordination with the Western Michigan Greenhouse Association and the Metropolitan Detroit Flower Growers Association. The greenhouse education sessions are open to everyone attending the Great Lakes Fruit, Vegetable and Farm Market EXPO.  Sessions present research-based information focused on greenhouse production issues, pest management, marketing, profitability, energy conservation, new production technologies, and more.

The Michigan Garden Plant Tour

In late July and early August of each year, we partner with several leading young plant producers in the state for a coordinated open house featuring plant displays in landscapes and containers.  The 2016 Tour will run from July 25 to August 5.  The objective of the Tour is to educate growers and industry professionals about new and existing plant selections and how they perform in different settings.  The MSU Plant Trial Field Day (to be held August 2, 2016) is an annual grower meeting that consists of tours of the Horticulture Demonstration Gardens and presentations targeted for managers and staff of retail and wholesale greenhouses, garden centers, and landscape companies. 

Team Personnel

Cathy Whitman Floriculture Research Technician 2001-present
Nate DuRussel Floriculture Greenhouse Technician 2013-present
Yujin Park Ph.D. student 2014-present
Brian Poel M.S. student 2014-present
Qingwu (William) Meng Ph.D. student 2015-present
Roberto Lopez Visiting scholar, Purdue University 2014-2015
Qingwu (William) Meng M.S. student (conferred) 2012-2014
Heidi Wollaeger M.S. student (conferred) 2011-2013
Mike Olrich Floriculture Greenhouse Technician 2001-2013
Fumiko Kohyama Visiting scholar, Kyoto University 2012-2013
Yoon Jin Kim Post-doctoral Research Associate 2012-2013
Tasneem Vaid M.S. student (conferred) 2010-2012
Daedre Craig M.S. student (conferred) 2008-2012
Matthew Blanchard Post-doctoral Research Associate 2010
Matthew Blanchard Ph.D. student (conferred) 2005-2009
Wook Oh Post-doctoral Research Associate 2007-2009
Linsey Newton M.S. student (conferred) 2006-2008
Sonali Padhye Post-doctoral Research Associate 2006-2008
Kyungchul Han Visiting professor, Cheongju Natl. Univ. Edu. 2007-2008
Roberto Lopez Ph.D. student (conferred) 2003-2007
Ki Sun Kim Visiting professor, Seoul National Univ. 2004-2005
Matthew Blanchard M.S. student (conferred) 2003-2005
Roberto Lopez M.S. student (conferred) 2001-2003
Lee Ann Pramuk M.S. student (conferred) 2001-2003

Graduate Student Awards

Qingwu Meng, 2016. 2nd place graduate student poster competition in the ISHS 8th International Symposium on Light in Horticulture. East Lansing, MI.

Yujin Park, 2016. Future Academic Scholars in Teaching (FAST) Fellow from the MSU Graduate School and the MSU Center for the Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning.

Qingwu Meng, 2016. 1st place applied oral competition in the MSU Plant Science Graduate Student Research Symposium. East Lansing, MI.

Qingwu Meng, 2016. 1st place applied poster competition in the MSU Plant Science Graduate Student Research Symposium. East Lansing, MI.

Yujin Park, 2015. 2nd place in the ASHS graduate student (Ph.D.) poster competition. New Orleans, LA.

Qingwu Meng, 2015. 1st place (tie) in the ASHS Controlled Environment Working Group (CEWG) graduate student oral competition. New Orleans, LA.

Daedre Craig and Erik Runkle, 2014. Kenneth Post Award for Graduate Research in Floriculture. Floriculture Working Group, American Society for Horticultural Science (paper link). Orlando, FL.

Heidi Wollaeger and Erik Runkle, 2014. AmericanHort Alex Laurie Award for most outstanding floriculture research paper in ASHS journals (paper link). Columbus, OH.

Qingwu Meng, 2014. 1st place in the graduate student poster competition, Committee on Controlled Environment Technology & Use (NCERA-101) regional working group annual meeting. Fairbanks, AK.

Qingwu Meng, 2014. 1st place applied oral competition and 3rd place applied poster competition in the MSU Plant Science Graduate Student Research Symposium. East Lansing, MI.

Matthew Blanchard, Erik Runkle, A.J. Both, and Hiroshi Shimizu. 2013. Kenneth Post Award for Graduate Research in Floriculture. Floriculture Working Group, American Society for Horticultural Science (paper link). Palm Desert, CA.

Heidi Wollaeger, 2012. 2nd place in the ASHS Controlled Environment Working Group (CEWG) student oral competition. Miami, FL.

Heidi Wollaeger, 2012. Recipient of the Ball Horticultural Company Scholarship through the American Floral Endowment.

Matthew Blanchard and Erik Runkle, 2012. OFA Alex Laurie Award for most outstanding floriculture research paper in ASHS journals (paper link). Columbus, OH.

Daedre Craig, 2012. 1st place applied oral competition in the MSU Plant Science Graduate Student Research Symposium. East Lansing, MI.

Tasneem Vaid, 2011. 2nd place in the ASHS Graduate Student Poster Competition. Waikoloa, HI.

Heidi Wollaeger, 2011-2012. MSU Plant Science Fellowship recipient. East Lansing, MI

Daedre Craig, 2010, 2011. Recipient of the Paul Ecke Jr. Scholarship through the American Floral Endowment.

Daedre Craig, 2011. 2nd place in the graduate student poster competition, Committee on Controlled Environment Technology & Use (NCERA-101) regional working group annual meeting. Ames, IA.

Daedre Craig, 2008-2010. MSU Plant Science Fellowship recipient.

Matthew Blanchard, 2010. HortScience cover with manuscript, volume 45, issue 2.

Matthew Blanchard, 2008, 2009. Best poster award, MSU Graduate Student Research Symposium. East Lansing, MI.

Matthew Blanchard, 2008. ASHS Extension Publications Award for Outstanding Website: Greenhouse Energy Cost Reduction Strategies.

Lee Ann Pramuk and Erik Runkle, 2006. Kenneth Post Award for Graduate Research in Floriculture (paper link).  Floriculture Working Group, American Society for Horticultural Science.

Lee Ann Pramuk and Erik Runkle, 2006. OFA Alex Laurie Award for most outstanding floriculture research papers in ASHS journals (paper link). Columbus, OH.

Roberto Lopez, 2006. John Carew Scholarship, Floriculture Industry Research and Scholarship Trust (now part of AFE).

Roberto Lopez, 2006. 1st place in the the graduate student poster competition, Committee on Controlled Environment Technology & Use (NCERA-101) regional working group annual meeting. Wooster, OH.

Matthew Blanchard, 2005. 2nd place in the graduate student poster competition, ISHS Symposium on Artificial Lighting in Horticulture. Lillehammer, Norway.

Roberto Lopez, 2004, 2005. Ed Markham Scholarship, Floriculture Industry Research and Scholarship Trust (now part of AFE).

Roberto Lopez, 2004. Richard Barrett Scholarship, Floriculture Industry Research and Scholarship Trust (now part of AFE).

Roberto Lopez, 2003. 1st place in the graduate student oral presentation competition, ISHS V International Symposium on New Floricultural Crops. Parana, Brazil.

Roberto Lopez, 2003. John Carew Scholarship, Floriculture Industry Research and Scholarship Trust (now part of AFE).

Research Publications

Google Scholar logo

Books (Edited)

Blanchard, M.G., E.S. Runkle, and Y.-I. Lee. 2010. Proceedings of the First International Orchid Symposium (Acta Hort. 878). 487 pp. Taichung, Taiwan.

Fisher, P. and E. Runkle. 2004. Lighting Up Profits: Understanding Greenhouse Lighting. 98 pp. Meister Media Worldwide, Willoughby, OH.

Heins, R., A. Cameron, W. Carlson, and E. Runkle. 2000. Firing Up Perennials: The 2000 Edition. 142 pp.  Meister Media Worldwide, Willoughby, OH.

Book Chapters

Mitchell, C.A., M.P. Dzakovich, C. Gomez, R. Lopez, J.F. Burr, R. Hernández, C. Kubota, C.J. Currey, Q. Meng, E.S. Runkle, C.M. Bourget, R.C. Morrow, and A.J. Both. 2015. Light-emitting diodes in horticulture, p. 1-88. In: J. Janick (ed.). Horticultural Reviews vol. 43. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.

Blanchard, M. and E. Runkle. 2011. Temperature, p. 67-81. In: J. Nau (ed.). Ball Redbook, 18th ed., vol. 2. Ball Publishing, Chicago, IL.

Blanchard, M.G., J.A. Chong, J.E. Faust, and E.S. Runkle. 2006. Temperature and light, p. 51-60. In: J.M. Dole and J.L. Gibson (eds.). Cutting Propagation: A Guide for Propagating and Producing Floriculture Crops. Ball Publishing, Batavia, IL.

Runkle, E.S., R.D. Heins, A.C. Cameron, and W.H. Carlson. 2002. Manipulating day length to flower perennials, p. 79-83. In: R. Blanchette (ed.). GrowerTalks on Perennials. Ball Publishing, Batavia, IL.

Heins R.D., A.C. Cameron, W.H. Carlson, E. Runkle, C. Whitman, M. Yuan, C. Hamaker, B. Engle, and P. Koreman. 1997. Controlled flowering of herbaceous perennial plants, p. 15-31. In: E. Goto et al. (eds.). Plant production in closed ecosystems. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.

Refereed Journal Publications & Conference Proceedings

Blanchard, M.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2016. Investigating reciprocity of intensity and duration of photoperiodic lighting to regulate flowering of long-day plants. Acta Hortic. 1134:41-48.

Park, Y. and E.S. Runkle. 2016. Investigating the merit of including far-red radiation in the production of ornamental seedlings grown under sole-source lighting. Acta Hortic. 1134:259-266.

Oh, W. and E.S. Runkle. 2016. Flowering and morphological responses of petunia and pansy as influenced by lamp type and lighting period to provide long days. Korean J. Hortic. Sci. Tech. 34:207-219.

Craig, D.S. and E.S. Runkle. 2016. An intermediate phytochrome photoequilibria from night-interruption lighting optimally promotes flowering of several long-day plants. Environ. Exp. Bot. 121:132-138.

Meng, Q. and E.S. Runkle. 2015. The role of blue light in night-interruption lighting of petunia. Acta Hort. 1107:101-105.

Vaid, T. and E.S. Runkle. 2015. Low temperature diminishes the photoperiodic flowering response of three petunia cultivars. Acta Hort. 1104:185-190.

Wollaeger, H.M and E.S. Runkle. 2015. Growth and acclimation of impatiens, salvia, petunia, and tomato seedlings to blue and red light. HortScience 50:522-529.

Newton, L.A. and E.S. Runkle. 2015. Effects of benzyladenine on vegetative growth and flowering of potted Miltoniopsis orchids. Acta Hort. 1078:121-127.

Meng, Q. and E.S. Runkle. 2015. Low-intensity blue light in night-interruption lighting does not influence flowering of herbaceous ornamentals. Sci. Hort. 186:230-238.

Kim, Y.J., D.J. Yu, H. Rho, E.S. Runkle, H.J. Lee, and K.S. Kim. 2015. Photosynthetic changes in Cymbidium orchids grown under different intensities of night interruption lighting. Sci. Hort. 186:124-128.

Meng, Q. and E.S. Runkle. 2014. Controlling flowering of photoperiodic ornamental crops with light-emitting diode lamps: A coordinated grower trial. HortTechnology 24:702-711.

Kohyama, F., C. Whitman, and E.S. Runkle. 2014. Comparing flowering responses of long-day plants under incandescent and two commercial light-emitting diode lamps. HortTechnology 24:490-495.

Wollaeger, H.M. and E.S. Runkle. 2014. Growth of impatiens, petunia, salvia, and tomato seedlings under blue, green, and red light-emitting diodes. HortScience 49:734-740.

Vaid, T.M., E.S. Runkle, and J.M. Frantz. 2014. Mean daily temperature regulates plant quality attributes of annual ornamental crops. HortScience 49:574-580.

Zhu, C., P. Unachak, J.R. Llera, D.B. Knoester, E.S. Runkle, L. Xu, and E.D. Goodman. 2014. Robust multi-objective evolutionary optimization to allow greenhouse production/energy use tradeoffs. Acta Hort. 1037:525-532.

Wollaeger, H.M. and E.S. Runkle. 2014. Producing commercial-quality ornamental seedlings under sole-source LED lighting. Acta Hort. 1037:269-276.

Wollaeger, H.M. and E.S. Runkle. 2013. Growth responses of ornamental annual seedlings under different wavelengths of red light provided by light-emitting diodes. HortScience 48:1478-1483.

Currey, C.J., R.G. Lopez, V.K. Rapaka, J.E. Faust, and E.S. Runkle. 2013. Exogenous applications of benzyladenine and gibberellic acid inhibit lower-leaf senescence of geraniums during propagation. HortScience 48:1352-1357.

Vaid, T.M. and E.S. Runkle. 2013. Developing flowering rate models in response to mean temperature for common annual ornamental crops. Sci. Hort. 161:15-23.

Whitman, C.M. and E.S. Runkle. 2013. Flowering of newly introduced herbaceous perennial ornamentals in response to photoperiod and low-temperature treatments. Acta Hort. 1000:353-360.

Craig, D.S. and E.S. Runkle. 2013. A moderate to high red to far-red light ratio from light-emitting diodes controls flowering of short-day plants. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 138:167-172.

Fisher, P.R., E.S. Runkle, M.G. Blanchard, J.E. Erwin, and B. MacKay. 2012. FlowersOnTime: A computer decision-support tool for floriculture crop producers. J. Extension 50(5):5TOT3.

Miller, W.B., N.S. Mattson, X. Xie, D Xu, C.J. Currey, K.L. Clemens, R.G. Lopez, M. Olrich, and E.S. Runkle. 2012. Ethephon substrate drenches inhibit stem extension of floriculture crops. HortScience 47:1312-1319.

Whitman, C.M. and E.S. Runkle. 2012. Determining the flowering requirements of two Aquilegia cultivars. HortScience 47:1261-1264.

Runkle, E.S., M.G. Blanchard, and J.M. Frantz. 2012. Using flowering and heat-loss models for improving greenhouse energy-use efficiency in annual bedding plant production.  Acta Hort. 957:99-106.

Craig, D.S. and E.S. Runkle. 2012. Using LEDs to quantify the effect of the red to far-red ratio of night-interruption lighting on flowering of photoperiodic crops. Acta Hort. 956:179-186.

Runkle, E.S., S.R. Padhye, W. Oh, and K. Getter. 2012. Replacing incandescent lamps with compact fluorescent lamps may delay flowering. Sci. Hort. 143:56-61.

Blanchard, M.G., E.S. Runkle, A.-J. Both, and H. Shimizu. 2012. Greenhouse energy curtains influence shoot-tip temperature of New Guinea impatiens. HortScience 47:483-488.

Runkle, E.S., S.R. Padhye, M.G. Blanchard, and W. Oh. 2011. Energy-efficient greenhouse lighting of ornamentals. Acta Hort. 907:53-59.

Blanchard, M.G., E.S. Runkle, and P.R. Fisher. 2011. Modeling plant morphology and development of petunia in response to temperature and photosynthetic daily light integral. Sci. Hort. 129:313-320.

Blanchard, M.G., E.S. Runkle, and J.M. Frantz. 2011. Energy-efficient greenhouse production of Petunia and Tagetes by manipulation of temperature and photosynthetic daily light integral. Acta Hort. 893:857-864.

Blanchard, M.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2011. The influence of day and night temperature fluctuations on growth and flowering of annual bedding plants and greenhouse heating cost predictions. HortScience 46:599-603.

Blanchard, M.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2011. Quantifying the thermal flowering rates of eighteen species of annual bedding plants. Sci. Hort. 128:30-37.

Padhye, S.R. and E.S. Runkle. 2011. Use of compact fluorescent lamps to provide a long-day photoperiod to herbaceous perennials. Acta Hort. 886:197-205.

Blanchard, M. and E. Runkle. 2010. Effects of emerging shoot size, temperature, and benzyladenine on growth and flowering of Zygopetalum Redvale ‘Fire Kiss’. Acta Hort. 878:302-309.

Runkle, E. 2010. Environmental and hormonal regulation of flowering in Phalaenopsis orchids: A mini review. Acta Hort. 878:263-267.

Newton, L.A. and E.S. Runkle. 2010. Effects of paclobutrazol sprays on inflorescences of three potted moth orchid clones. HortTechnology 20:892-895.

Oh, W., E.S. Runkle, and R.M. Warner. 2010. Timing and duration of supplemental lighting during the seedling stage influence quality and flowering in petunia and pansy. HortScience 45:1332-1337.

Blanchard, M.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2010. Influence of NIR-reflecting shading paint on greenhouse environment, plant temperature, and growth and flowering of bedding plants. Trans. ASABE 53:939-944.

Blanchard, M.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2010. Intermittent light from a rotating high-pressure sodium lamp promotes flowering of long-day plants. HortScience 45:236-241.

Blanchard, M.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2009. Influence of short-term storage temperature and duration of canna rhizomes on subsequent greenhouse forcing. Acta Hort. 847:313-319.

Blanchard, M.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2009. Use of a cyclic high-pressure sodium lamp to inhibit flowering of chrysanthemum and velvet sage. Sci. Hort. 122:448-454.

Runkle, E.S., S.J. Allen, T.A. Dudek, J.M. Himmelein, and D.M. Krauskopf. 2009. The Floriculture College of Knowledge: A certificate program for greenhouse growers. Acta Hort. 832:195-202.

Newton, L.A. and E.S. Runkle. 2009. High-temperature inhibition of flowering of Phalaenopsis and Doritaenopsis orchids. HortScience 44:1271-1276.

Oh, W., I.H. Cheon, K.S. Kim, and E.S. Runkle. 2009. Photosynthetic daily light integral influences flowering time and crop characteristics of Cyclamen persicum. HortScience 44:341-344.

Blanchard, M.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2009. Effects of a new cyclical lighting system on flower induction in long-day plants: A preliminary investigation. Acta Hort. 813:623-630.

Lopez, R.G., M.G. Blanchard, and E.S. Runkle. 2009. Propagation and production of Zamioculcas zamiifolia. Acta Hort. 813:559−564.

Blanchard, M.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2008. Increasing stem elongation and bract size of poinsettia ‘Freedom Red’ with gibberellins and benzyladenine. Acta Hort. 774:209-215.

Lopez, R.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2008. Photosynthetic daily light integral during propagation influences rooting and growth of cuttings and subsequent development of New Guinea impatiens and petunia. HortScience 43:2052-2059.

Lopez, R.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2008. Low temperature storage influences morphological and physiological characteristics of nonrooted cuttings of New Guinea impatiens (Impatiens hawkeri). Postharvest Biol. Technol. 50:95-102.

Oh, W., Y.H Rhie, J.H. Park, E.S. Runkle, and K.S. Kim. 2008. Flowering of cyclamen is accelerated by an increase in temperature, photoperiod, and daily light integral. J. Hort. Sci. Biotech. 83:559-562.

Blanchard, M.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2008. Temperature and pseudobulb size influence flowering of Odontioda orchids. HortScience 43:1404-1409.

Blanchard, M.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2008. Container opacity and media components influence rooting of potted Phalaenopsis and Doritaenopsis orchids. Acta Hort. 788:115-120.

Rapaka, V.K., J.E. Faust, J.M. Dole, and E.S. Runkle. 2008. Endogenous carbohydrate status affects postharvest ethylene sensitivity in relation to leaf senescence and adventitious root formation in Pelargonium cuttings. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 48:272-282.

Blanchard, M.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2008. Benzyladenine promotes flowering in Doritaenopsis and Phalaenopsis orchids. J. Plant Growth Regul. 27:141-150.

Lopez, R.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2008. Effect of temperature and pseudobulb maturity on flowering of the orchid Miltoniopsis Augres ‘Trinity’. Acta Hort. 766:273-278.

Glady, J.E., N.S. Lang, and E.S. Runkle. 2007. Effects of ethephon on stock plant management of Coreopsis verticillata, Dianthus caryophyllus, and Veronica longifolia. HortScience 42:1616-1621.

Blanchard, M.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2007. Dipping bedding plant liners in paclobutrazol or uniconazole inhibits subsequent stem extension. HortTechnology 17:178-182.

Moccaldi, L.A. and E.S. Runkle. 2007. Modeling the effects of temperature and photosynthetic daily light integral on growth and flowering of Salvia splendens and Tagetes patula. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 132:283-288.

Runkle, E.S. 2007. Innovative production systems for ornamental potted plants: A case study for Phalaenopsis orchids. Acta Hort. 755:55-59.

Blanchard, M.G., L.A. Newton, E.S. Runkle, D. Woolard, and C.A. Campbell. 2007. Exogenous applications of abscisic acid improved the postharvest drought tolerance of several annual bedding plants. Acta Hort. 755:127-132.

Rapaka, V.K., J.E. Faust, J. Dole, and E.S. Runkle. 2007. Diurnal carbohydrate dynamics affect postharvest ethylene responsiveness in portulaca (Portulaca grandiflora ‘Yubi Deep Rose’) unrooted cuttings. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 44:293-299.

Rapaka, V.K., J.E. Faust, J. Dole, and E.S. Runkle. 2007. Effect of time of harvest on postharvest leaf abscission in lantana (Lantana camara L. ‘Dallas Red’) unrooted cuttings. HortScience 42:304-308.

Blanchard, M.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2006. Temperature during the day, but not during the night, controls flowering of Phalaenopsis orchids. J. Exp. Bot. 57:4043-4049.

Lopez, R.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2006. Temperature and photoperiod regulate flowering of potted Miltoniopsis orchids. HortScience 41:593-597.

Runkle, E.S. and R.D. Heins. 2006. Manipulating the light environment to control flowering and morphogenesis of herbaceous plants. Acta Hort. 711:51-60.

Shimizu, H.,  Z. Ma, S. Tazawa, M. Douzono, E.S. Runkle, and R.D. Heins. 2006. Blue light inhibits stem elongation of chrysanthemum. Acta Hort. 711:363-368.

Lopez, R.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2006. Daily light integral influences rooting and quality of petunia cuttings. Acta Hort. 711:369-373.

Lopez, R.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2005. Environmental physiology of growth and flowering of orchids. HortScience 40:1969-1973.

Pramuk, L.A. and E.S. Runkle. 2005. Modeling growth and development of Celosia and Impatiens in response to temperature and photosynthetic daily light integral. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 130:813-818.

Pramuk, L.A. and E.S. Runkle. 2005. Photosynthetic daily light integral during the seedling stage influences subsequent growth and flowering of Celosia, Impatiens, Salvia, Tagetes, and Viola. HortScience 40:1336-1339.

Lopez, R.G., E.S. Runkle, and R.D. Heins. 2005. Flowering of the orchid Miltoniopsis Augres ‘Trinity’ is influenced by photoperiod and temperature. Acta Hort. 683:175-180.

Lopez, R.G. and E.S. Runkle. 2004. The effect of temperature on leaf and flower development and flower longevity of Zygopetalum Redvale ‘Fire Kiss’ orchid. HortScience 39:1630-1634.

Shimizu, H., E.S. Runkle, and R.D. Heins. 2004. A steady-state model for prediction of poinsettia plant shoot-tip temperature. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 129:303-312.

Clifford, S.C., E.S. Runkle, F.A. Langton, A. Mead, S.A. Foster, S. Pearson, and R.D. Heins. 2004. Height control of poinsettia using photoselective filters. HortScience 39:383-387.

Lopez, R.G., E.S. Runkle, R.D. Heins, and C.M. Whitman. 2003. Temperature and photoperiodic effects on growth and flowering of Zygopetalum Redvale ‘Fire Kiss’ orchids. Acta Hort. 624:155-162.

Shimizu, H., R.D. Heins, and E. Runkle. 2003. Simulation study of total energy consumption required to produce a mature plant at different greenhouse temperatures. J. Soc. High Tech. Agric. 15:123-129. (In Japanese; abstract in English.)

Runkle, E.S. and R.D. Heins. 2003. Photocontrol of flowering and extension growth in the long-day plant pansy. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 128:479-485.

Runkle, E.S. and R.D. Heins. 2002. Stem extension and subsequent flowering of seedlings grown under a film creating a far red deficient environment. Sci. Hort. 96:257-265.

Runkle, E.S., R.D. Heins, P. Jaster, and C. Thill. 2002. Environmental conditions under an experimental near infra-red reflecting greenhouse film. Acta Hort. 578:181-185.

Runkle, E.S., R.D. Heins, P. Jaster, and C. Thill. 2002. Plant responses under an experimental near infra-red reflecting greenhouse film. Acta Hort. 580:137-143.

Runkle, E., R. Heins, A. Cameron, and W. Carlson. 2001. Minireview of research activity: Horticultural flowering of herbaceous perennials. Flowering Newslett. 31:34-43.

Runkle, E.S., R.D. Heins, A.C. Cameron, and W.H. Carlson. 2001. Photocontrol of flowering and stem extension of the intermediate-day plant Echinacea purpurea. Physiol. Plant. 112:433-440.

Runkle, E.S. and R.D. Heins. 2001. Specific functions of red, far red, and blue light in flowering and stem extension of long-day plants. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 126:275-282.

Heins, R.D., B. Liu, and E.S. Runkle. 2000. Regulation of crop growth and development based on environmental factors. Acta Hort. 514:13-22.

Runkle, E.S., R.D. Heins, A.C. Cameron, and W.H. Carlson. 1999. Cold treatment modifies the photoperiodic flowering response of Lobelia ×speciosa. Sci. Hort. 80:247-258.

Runkle, E.S., R.D. Heins, A.C. Cameron, and W.H. Carlson. 1999. Photoperiod and cold treatment regulate flowering of Rudbeckia fulgida ‘Goldsturm’. HortScience 34:55-58.

Runkle, E.S. and Pearson, S. 1998. Phytochrome A does not mediate reduced stem extension from cool day-temperature treatments. Physiol. Plant. 104:596-602.

Runkle, E.S., R.D. Heins, A.C. Cameron, and W.H. Carlson. 1998. Flowering of Phlox paniculata is influenced by photoperiod and cold treatment. HortScience 33:1172-1174.

Runkle, E.S., R.D. Heins, A.C. Cameron, and W.H. Carlson. 1998. Flowering of Leucanthemum ×superbum ‘Snowcap’ in response to photoperiod and cold treatment. HortScience 33:1003-1006.

Runkle, E.S., R.D. Heins, A.C. Cameron, and W.H. Carlson. 1998. Flowering of herbaceous perennials under various night interruption and cyclic lighting treatments. HortScience 33:672-677.

Runkle, E.S., R.D. Heins, A.C. Cameron, and W.H. Carlson. 1998. Flowering of cold-treated field-grown Astilbe. HortTechnology 8:207-209.

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Meng, Q. 2014. Investigating use of blue, red, and far-red light from light-emitting diodes to regulate flowering of photoperiodic ornamental crops. MS thesis, Dept. of Hort., Mich. State Univ., East Lansing, MI. ISBN 9781321026658.

Wollaeger, H.M. 2013. Growth and morphological acclimation of seedlings to blue, green, and red light from light-emitting diodes. MS thesis, Dept. of Hort., Mich. State Univ., East Lansing, MI. ISBN 9781303288968.

Craig, D.S. 2012. Determining effective ratios of red and far-red light from light-emitting diodes that control flowering of photoperiodic ornamental crops. MS thesis, Dept. of Hort., Mich. State Univ., East Lansing, MI. ISBN 9781267589828.

Vaid, T.M. 2012. Improving the scheduling and profitability of annual bedding plant production by manipulating temperature, daily light integral, photoperiod, and transplant size. MS thesis, Dept. of Hort., Mich. State Univ., East Lansing, MI. ISBN 9781267589361.

Blanchard, M.G. 2009. Manipulating light and temperature for energy-efficient greenhouse production of ornamental crops. PhD diss., Dept. of Hort., Mich. State Univ., East Lansing, MI. ISBN 9781109644616.

Newton, L.A. 2008. Effects of high temperature and plant growth regulators on vegetative growth and flowering of potted orchids. MS thesis, Dept. of Hort., Mich. State Univ., East Lansing, MI. ISBN 9781109028171.

Lopez, R.G. 2007. Stock plant and propagation photosynthetic daily light integral and storage influence postharvest performance of herbaceous cuttings. PhD diss., Dept. of Hort., Mich. State Univ., East Lansing, MI. ISBN 9780549239819.

Blanchard, M.G. 2005. Effects of temperature on growth and flowering of two Phalaenopsis and two Odontioda orchid hybrids. MS thesis, Dept. of Hort., Mich. State Univ., East Lansing, MI. ISBN 9780542527067.

Pramuk, L.A. 2003. Temperature and daily light integral effects on five bedding plant species. MS thesis, Dept. of Hort., Mich. State Univ., East Lansing, MI. ProQuest document ID 305327034.

Lopez, R.G. 2003. Effects of photoperiod and temperature on growth and flowering of six orchid hybrids. MS thesis, Dept. of Hort., Mich. State Univ., East Lansing, MI. ProQuest document ID 305328094.